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Model 1861 Springfield Rifle-Musket

Manufactured at both the Springfield Arsenal and by more than a dozen contractors, the .58 caliber M1861
Springfield Rifle-Musket is the preferred weapon for use by members of Company K.

With an overall length of 56 inches and a weight of just about 9 ¼ pounds, the M1861 Springfield had three flat
barrel bands (marked with a U), a clean-out screw below the cone, and a ramrod with a bulge, or "tulip-head"
swell located about 3 ¾ inches from the head. Stamped markings on the lock plate generally included a U.S.,
an Eagle, and a manufacturer name (Springfield, Bridesburg, Norwich, etc.) to the front of the hammer, a date
of manufacture to the rear of the hammer and a date and proof marks on the barrel. With the Springfield Arsenal
producing over 250,000 M1861 Rifle Muskets, and contractors producing hundreds of thousands more, the
Model 1861 Rifle-Musket was the most widely used weapon of the Civil War.

Replicas of the M1861 Springfield are made by several manufacturers including Armi Sport and Euroarms.
While no replica is an exact match of the original, any of the current replicas is acceptable for use (but see
modern markings below).

Model 1863 Springfield Rifle-Musket

Recruits and soldiers who already own a M1863 Springfield can continue to use it, and do not need to purchase
a new weapon. However, members who do purchase a rifle-musket should buy a M1861 Springfield, not a M1863.

Adopted in February of 1863, the M1863 has an overall length of 56 inches and weighs 8 pounds, 12 ounces. The
barrel bands, each 1/2 inch wide, are the split oval type, using a clamping screw (vs. flat on the M1861). The bands
could be blued or bright. The ramrod no longer had a swell behind the "tulip" head and was held in place by a spoon
spring inserted into the stock. The nipple bolster is shorter, eliminating the clean-out screw.

A Type II Model 1863 Springfield was adopted in December, 1863. The main difference between the Type I and Type
II models, were the barrel bands. The bands on the Type II are solid and use retaining springs, forward of the band.

Over 270,000 Type I and over 250,000 Type II, Model 1863 rifle-muskets were produced by Springfield Arsenal.

Like the Model 1861, the M1863 Springfield reproductions are made by several manufacturers

Springfield accessories

While private soldiers in Company K are not required to carry issued accessories an effort should be made to
acquire suitable replicas of them. For the M1861 Springfield rifle-musket the accessories for privates include
a wiper, a M1855 cone wrench, a tampion, a cone prick, and a spare cone. The wiper, cone wrench, and spare
cone are carried in the accessory pouch of the cartridge box. The wiper (which looks something like a cork
screw) is used during cleaning to run patches down the barrel. The cone wrench is used (among other things)
to remove the cone for cleaning.  In addition the M1855 wrench has three screwdriver blades used to further
disassemble the weapon. The smallest of these blades is used to remove the clean-out screw from the side
of the bolster. The cone prick is stored in the cap pouch and is used to clean out the flash hole in the cone.
When the weapon is not in use the tampion is placed in the barrel to keep out debris.

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Pattern 1853 Enfield

Recruits and soldiers who already own a P1853 Enfield can continue to use it, and do not need to purchase
a new weapon. However, members who do purchase a rifle-musket should buy a M1861 Springfield, not a
P1853 Enfield.

Manufactured by a dozen or so weapon "shops" in England the .577 caliber P-53 British Enfield was imported,
by both the North and South, in the 100's of thousands. The most common version imported was the 3rd Model
P-53 Enfield.  Northern importation of the P-53 Enfield appears to have stopped in 1863 when production of
Springfield Rifle-muskets was able to meet Federal demands for arms. Nearly the same weight as the M1861
Springfield, the P-53 was about 3 inches shorter.

Unlike the Model 1861 Springfield, which used machine made parts, the majority of imported P-53 Enfields
utilized few machine made parts. Since more hand crafting went into the assembly of the final weapon parts
from one P-53 Enfield were often not interchangeable with another. Because the P-53 was manufactured by
different arms houses (most centered around Birmingham or London) there are wide differences in lock
plate markings, proof marks, etc.

Replicas of the P-53 Enfield are made by several manufacturers including Armi Sport and Euroarms.  Neither
replica is an exact match of an original.  At this time, however, the Armi Sport model is viewed as a closer
match to original P-53's. If you choose to do so it is also easier to retro fit (see modern markings below).

Enfield accessories

Private soldiers in Company K, who choose to carry a P-53 Enfield, should attempt to find a proper Enfield Privates
tool. These tools, depending on the version, could be either in the shape of a Υ or the shape of a †. The long leg of
either the of the Υ or leg of the † was a cone wrench at one end, and a oil reservoir with a dropper at the other. Located
along the body was a cone prick. The cross arm, regardless of its shape had a screw driver blade on one arm, and
was threaded on the other arm to hold a wiper.

Other optional accessories, for the those who have an Enfield, include a snap cap (aka a cone protector) and a
tampion. Enfield tampions were usually made out of cork and had a knurled brass cap. Repros of these are now
available through several sutlers and are preferred over straight wood "plug" type tampions.  Original snap caps
have a brass split ring, which attaches to the rear sling swivel (on the trigger guard), a length of teardrop shapped
chain, and a iron cap, topped with a leather disk.  Because there are reproduction snap caps that closely match
originals, and because the snap cap is an optional item, please make an effort to acquire one of the better
reproductions if you choose to use one.

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Bayonet and scabbard

Soldiers will need to acquire a suitable reproduction bayonet that matches their weapon. Most sutlers sell bayonets
specifically for either the Springfield or Enfield. Because the barrel sizes on reproductions vary it is often necessary to
"fit" your bayonet to the rifle. Some sutlers will do this for you if you purchase the bayonet and rifle from them at the
same time.

For both Springfields and Enfields soldiers may purchase and use U.S. model bayonet scabbards. These may be
early war, two rivet style scabbards, or they may be later war type scabbards with seven rivets. The U.S. style bayonet
scabbards and frogs are permanently attached, with the scabbard hanging at an angle. Soldiers who carry Enfields
may, if they wish, choose to use British style bayonet scabbards. This style of scabbard / frog is two piece. In this
style the scabbard, which is removable, hangs straight down.

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Cleaning equipment

In most cases, due to differences in the threading on ramrods, cleaning gear needs to be puchased that
matches a specific manufacturer. In general, however, the following items should be purchased to allow a
thorough cleaning of your weapon.

Note: Modern cleaning equipment is never to be used in camp during hours when the public is present.

Cleaning jag or wiper:  This is the tool used to hold patches. A wiper (see above) was an issued item and
so is deemed to be more period correct than the cleaning jag (which is slotted).

Cone wrench:  Another issued tool, the cone wrench is used to remove the cone for cleaning. It also contains
multiple screwdrivers to further dis-assemble the weapon. If your weapon has a functional clean out screw
on the bolster, a Model 1855 wrench (original or reproduction) should be acquired, as this model contains a
small third screwdriver blade to remove the clean out screw.

Scraper:  This tool attaches to the ramrod and is used to remove fouling from the face of the breach plug.

Patches:  Patches can be either store bought or made at home. These are used with the jag or wiper to remove
additional fouling from the barrel, remove any water left in the barrel after cleaning, and to apply a thin coat of oil
to the inside of the barrel after cleaning.

Other:  Other equipment that can be used to further clean your weapon includes such items as Q-tips, a brass
brush, and some form of polishing cloth or agent such as ash or rotten-stone. Modern items, such as Q-tips,
scotch-bright, etc. are not to be used at the Fort during the hours when the public is present.

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Modern markings

As stated above, no current reproduction of either the M1861/63 Springfield rifle-musket or the M1853
Enfield, fully matches the appearance of original weapons.  There are several vendors who offer services
that will make the weapon more historically accurate.  The term "de-farb" is often used to describe these
services. Several vendors who offer de-farb services also sell weapons that have been "de-farbed". Note
that at this time, no vendor, offers de-farb services that will make a reproduction weapon 100 percent accurate.

Most vendors who provide de-farb services offer several levels. At the simplest level, modern markings,
such as made in "Italy", and manufacturers serial numbers are either removed or reloacted to a non-
visual location (such as under the barrel). If needed more historically accurate markings are then stamped
onto the barrel. Additional services replace inaccurate parts (such as barrel bands on most Enfield rifles)
with either original parts or more accurate replacement parts. A service which has become available in the
last few years is to have the stock re-shaped (and possibly re-stained) to more closely match originals.

A full rework of a reproduction weapon can cost several hundred dollars and is not a requirement for joining
Company K.

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